A review of Two Factor Authentication Security Challenges in the Cyberspace
Today, single-factor authentication, e.g. Passwords, is no longer considered secure on the cyberspace and electronic learning environment. With the advancement of technology, passwords are becoming easier for cyber-attacks to forcibly test and eventually guess passwords or harvest them with technologies such as keystroke loggers. Two factor Authentication (2FA) has been recently introduced to overcome this problem by providing an additional layer of security using secondary means (ownership factor or inherent factor), however, the users of 2FA are still facing challenges such as delays in receiving SMS codes, expiry of codes before use, burden of carrying hardware tokens all the time and in some instances payment for incoming SMS. A review of literature on studies conducted on two factor authentication security issues and challenges is done in this paper. The paper concludes that 2FA has a number of challenges ranging from the cost of manufacturing tokens, maintaining codes, distribution of millions of tokens to users and delays in receiving verification codes. Therefore, based on the findings, the study recommends that other studies be conducted on an alternative multifactor authentication schemes that are easy to use and will protect users in an appropriate manner.
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