An Improved Reversible Data Hiding with Hierarchical Embedding for Encrypted Images and BBET

  • Ritik Gour TITE, RGPV, MP, Bhopal, India
  • Amar Nayak TITE, RGPV, MP, Bhopal, India
Keywords: Reversible Data Hiding, Image Encryption, Image Decryption, Histogram Shifting, MSE Measure, PSNR Measure, Security, RDHEI, BBET


This research introduces an enhanced reversible data hiding (RDH) approach incorporating hierarchical embedding for encrypted images and employs a novel technique termed BBET (Best Bits Embedding Technique). RDH involves concealing information within a host sequence, enabling the restoration of both the host sequence and embedded data without loss from the marked sequence. While RDH has traditionally found applications in media annotation and integrity authentication, its utilisation has expanded into diverse fields. Given the rapid advancements in digital communication, computer technologies, and the Internet, ensuring information security poses a formidable challenge in safeguarding valuable data. Various reversible and stenographic techniques exist for covertly embedding or protecting data, spanning text, images, and protocols, and facilitating secure transmission to intended recipients. An influential approach in data security is reversible data hiding in encrypted images (RDHEI). This paper distinguishes between the conventional RDHEI technique, characterised by lower Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and higher Mean Squared Error (MSE), and proposes an improved RDHEI technique. As the prevalence of digital techniques for image transmission and storage rises, preserving image confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity becomes paramount. Text associated with an image, such as authentication or author information, can serve as embedded data. The recipient must adeptly recover both the concealed data and the original image. Reversible data-hiding techniques ensure the exact recovery of the original carrier after extracting the encrypted data. Classification of RDHEI techniques is based on the implemented method employed. This paper delves into a comprehensive exploration of techniques applicable to difference expansion, histogram shifting, and compression embedding for reversible data hiding. Emphasis is placed on the necessity for a reversible data-hiding technique that meticulously restores the host image.

Furthermore, the study evaluates performance parameters associated with encryption processes, scrutinising their security aspects. The investigation utilises the MATLAB tool to develop the proposed BBET technique, comparing its efficacy in embedding and achieving enhanced security features. The BBET technique is characterised by reliability, high robustness, and secure data hiding, making it a valuable addition to the evolving landscape of reversible data hiding methodologies.


Download data is not yet available.


[1] Zhang, X., Reversible data hiding in encrypted image. IEEE Signal Processing Letters, 18(4), 255-258, 2011.
[2] Puech, William, Marc Chaumont, and Olivier Strauss. “A reversible data hiding method for encrypted images.” In security, forensics, steganography, and watermarking of multimedia contents X, vol. 6819, pp. 534-542. SPIE, 2008.
[3] Ma, Kede, Weiming Zhang, Xianfeng Zhao, Nenghai Yu, and Fenghua Li. “Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reserving room before encryption.” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 8, no. 3: 553-562, 2013.
[4] Tai, Wei-Liang, Chia-Ming Yeh, and Chin-Chen Chang. “Reversible data hiding based on histogram modification of pixel differences.” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 19, no. 6: 906-910, 2009.
[5] Awrangjeb, Mohammad. “An overview of reversible data hiding.” In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, pp. 75-79,2003.
[6] Wang, Junxiang, Jiangqun Ni, Xing Zhang, and Yun-Qing Shi. “Rate and distortion optimisation for reversible data hiding using multiple histograms shifting.” IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics 47, no. 2: 315-326, 2016.
[7] Yu, Chunqiang, Xianquan, Xinpeng, Guoxiang Li, and Zhenjun Tang. “Reversible data hiding with hierarchical embedding for encrypted images.” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology 32, no. 2,451-466, 2021.
[8] W. Puech, M. Chaumont and O. Strauss “A Reversible Data Hiding Method for Encrypted Images”, SPIE, IS & T’08: SPIE Electronic Imaging, Security, Forensics, Steganography and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents, San Jose, CA, USA.
[9] Q. Ying, Z. Qian, X. Zhang and D. Ye, “Reversible Data Hiding with Image Enhancement Using Histogram Shifting,” in IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 46506-46521, 2019.
[10] J. Tian, “Reversible data embedding using a difference expansion,” IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 13, No. 8, August 2003. pp. 890 - 896.
[11] C. Yu, X. Zhang, Z. Tang and X. Xie, “Separable and Error-Free Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Image Based on Two-Layer Pixel Errors,” in IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 76956-76969, 2018.
[12] W. Zhang, K. Ma, and N. Yu, “Reversibility improved data hiding in encrypted images,” Signal Processing, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 118-127, Jan. 2014.
[13] Shuang Yi, Yicong Zhou” An Improved Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images” Signal and Information Processing (ChinaSIP), 2015 IEEE China Summit and International Conference on, Pages:9, 2015.
[14] D. Xu, and R. Wang, “Separable and error-free reversible data hiding in encrypted images,” Signal Processing, vol. 123, pp. 9-21, Jun. 2016.
[15] Zhaoxia Yin, Andrew Abel, Xinpeng Zhan, Bin Luo “Reversible Data Hiding In Encrypted Image Based On Block Histogram Shifting “Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), IEEE International Conference on,2129-2133, 2016.
[16] Z. Yin, Y. Xiang and X. Zhang, “Reversible data hiding in encrypted images based on multi-MSB prediction and Huffman coding,” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 874–884, 2020.
[17] Zhang, Weiming, Hui Wang, Dongdong Hou, and Nenghai Yu. “Reversible data hiding in encrypted images by reversible image transformation.” IEEE Transactions on Multimedia 18, no. 8: 1469-1479, 2016.
[18] Puteaux, Pauline, and William Puech. “An efficient MSB prediction-based method for high-capacity reversible data hiding in encrypted images.” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 13, no. 7 1670-1681, 2018.
[19] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and J. A. Bloom, Digital Watermarking and Steganography, Morgan Kaufmann, 2nd edition, 2007.
[20] ] Nutan Palshikar, Prof. Sanjay Jadhav, “Lossless Data Hiding using Histogram Modification and Hash Encryption Scheme”, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 4, Issue 1, 2014.
[21] Mithu Varghese, Teenu S Jhon, “ A Survey on Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images”, International Journal of Computer Applications Advanced Computing and Communication Techniques for High-Performance Applications,0975 – 8887,2014.
[22] Z. Ni, Y. Shi, N. Ansari, and W. Su, “Reversible data hiding,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 354–362, 2006.
[23] L. R. Mathew, A. C. Haran V., “Histogram Shifting based reversible data hiding”, IJETT, pp. 482-485, 2014.
[24] Rini. J, 4th Semester M.Tech, Dept. of Computer Science and Information Systems FISATAngamaly, Kerala, India “Study on Separable Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images” International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue 12, December-2013 Copyright © 2013 SciResPub. IJOART.
[25] K. A. Navas, M. C. Ajay, M. Lakshmi, T. S. Archana, and M. Sasikumar, “DWT-DCT-SVD based watermarking,” in Communication Systems Software and Middleware and Workshops, 2008. COMSWARE 2008. 3rd International Conference on, 2008, pp. 271–274.
[26] Chauhan Usha, Singh Rajeev Kumar, “Digital Image Watermarking Techniques and Applications: A Survey”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 6, Issue 3, March 2016.
[27] Jiantao Zhou, Weiwei Sun, Li Dong, Xianming Liu, Oscar C. Au, and Yuan Yan Tang, “Secure Reversible Image Data Hiding over Encrypted Domain via Key Modulation”, IEEE transactions on circuits and systems for video technology,2015.
[28] Ashwind S, Ganesh K, Gokul R and Ranjeeth Kumar C, “Secure Data Transmission Using Reversible Data Hiding”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 5 Issue 2 pp. 861-1863, 2014.
[29] X. Zhang, “Separable reversible data hiding in the encrypted image,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 826–832, Apr. 2012.
[30] M.S Hwanga, L.Y. Tsengb, LC Huang, “A reversible data hiding method by histogram shifting in high-quality medical images”, Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 86, (3), pp. 716–727, 2013.
How to Cite
Gour, R., & Nayak, A. (2023). An Improved Reversible Data Hiding with Hierarchical Embedding for Encrypted Images and BBET. International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology, 12(6), 1-10. Retrieved from